TypeScript

TypeScript is a free and open source programming language designed by Microsoft. TypeScript is a typed superset of JavaScript that it has some useful function in large project such as optional static type.

ThinkJS 2.1 has support TypeScript, you can auto-compile and auto-update in your projects.

Create TypeScript Projects

We can create Typescript projects by using --ts:

thinkjs new thinkjs_demo --ts

TypeScript's file extension is .ts. If you want to create Typescript file manually, the postfix should be .ts too, or it will trigger error when calling tsc to compile.

.d.ts file

.d.ts files are the description file of third party libraries. When we create our projects, the file named typings/thinkjs/think.d.ts will be created as ThinkJS's description file. You can include this description file in your project files as the following:

/// <reference path="../../../typings/thinkjs/think.d.ts" />

This code must be placed on the first line in the file, and the path must be correct. If your file has use strict, this code should set after use strict.

If your projects rely on other third party libraries, you should install their description files respectively. You can finish installation by use the tsd.

You can find description file of some third party libraries in https://github.com/DefinitelyTyped/DefinitelyTyped.

TypeScript Compiling

Because of there are some faults in compiling TypeScript, we have chosen to compile TypeScript .ts files to ES6 code first, then we compile the ES6 code to ES5 code using Babel 6.

If you find any problem about TypeScript, you can open an issue on https://github.com/Microsoft/TypeScript

Change Existing Projects To Using TypeScript

For projects that have used the ES6/7 features, ThinkJS could also supports to update them to use TypeScript.

Change Entry File

Change entry file www/development.js as following:

//compile src/ to app/
instance.compile({
  log: true,
  type: "ts" //TypeScript
});

Modify package.json

Clear all dependencies related to Babel and ThinkJS and append following dependencies:

{
  "dependencies": {
    "thinkjs": "2.1.x",
    "babel-runtime": "6.x.x"
  },
  "devDependencies": {
    "typescript": "next",
    "babel-cli": "6.x.x",
    "babel-preset-es2015-loose": "6.x.x",
    "babel-preset-stage-1": "6.x.x",
    "babel-plugin-transform-runtime": "6.x.x",
    "babel-core": "6.x.x"
  }
}

If some modules in dependencies and devDependencies have been used, they should be merged together.

After modifying, run npm install to install all dependencies.

Modify .thinkjsrc

Change project's configration file .thinkjsrc to:

{
  "createAt": "2016-01-13 17:27:19",
  "mode": "module",
  "ts": true
}

Downloading think.d.ts Description File

Downloads file https://github.com/75team/thinkjs/blob/master/template/think.d.ts and save it as typings/thinkjs/think.d.ts

Modify File Extension

Modify all .js files in src to .ts files.

Add bin/compile.js File

Downloads file https://github.com/75team/thinkjs/blob/master/template/bin/compile.ts and save it as bin/compile.js

Modify Compiling Command

Change compiling command in package.json to node bin/compile.js.

Add Description File In Project's Discription File

All files in src/ must add the following code in its first line, releative path should be correct:

/// <reference path="../../../typings/thinkjs/think.d.ts" />

Run npm start to start service after finished all modifying.